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National Security Studies at Webster University Library

Department of History, Politics, and International Relations (HPIR)

Help with Chicago Style

Chicago style guides in the library

Webster University's Writing Center

Whether you are an experienced academic writer or this is your first paper, Webster University's Writing Center offers writing support for students. Find help with all kinds of research projects, including "reports; résumés and cover letters; admission essays and personal statements; summaries, critical analyses, and literature reviews; research and term papers; theses and dissertations; and more." Writing Center coaches are available at all stages of the writing process from brainstorming to draft revision and everything in-between.

Visit Writing Support to: 

  • Schedule an appointment with a writing coach
  • Submit a paper online to the Writing Center for review
  • Select Writing Resources to find help with citation, grammar, avoiding plagiarism, and more

Citing ChatGPT and other generative AI applications in Chicago style

ChatGPT and similar tools are not credible sources of information; however, if your instructor allows other uses of AI applications in your course, you will still need to cite the output of those applications as you would any other source you use in your academic work. Citing the output of generative AI, for example large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT, is a unique challenge in that these applications are not "authors," and the output itself is irretrievable by others even when referenced. Therefore, you may need to provide additional documentation when submitting your work, for example, the full prompts you used to generate the output along with transcriptions or screenshots of the output. Style guides differ greatly on how and when to cite AI-generated content, so it's important to read the style guidelines for full details. Below are examples from The Chicago Manual of Style Online (CMOS) for how to cite ChatGPT output specifically, but these examples should be applicable to any generative AI application.

Citing generative AI output is not always necessary in Chicago style. Please consult the guidelines for full details.

Numbered footnote or endnote:

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

Numbered footnote or endnote where the prompt hasn’t been included in the text:

1. ChatGPT, response to “Explain how to make pizza dough from

common household ingredients,” OpenAI, March 7, 2023.


(ChatGPT, March 7, 2023)