Case studies usually present the pertinent facts about a real or fictional business or management "problem". Teaching cases are intended to provide the reader with sufficient data to evaluate multiple courses of action. They may pose questions to stimulate critical thinking and help readers to apply theory to the analysis of the events portrayed.
Journals that go through a process in which experts in the field (the author's peers) verify that the information and research methods are up to standards. In order to know if an article is peer reviewed, look at the journal rather than the article.
An original paper, article or document created with raw data, for example, tests, experiments or field research; data sets from pre-existing databases generated by others; first hand accounts or archival materials (for example, journals, diaries or letters written by ,say, historical figures or original historical documents); policy documents generated by, say governments and other organizations; state and international legal legislation- also court judgments; literary, art or religious works; and so forth.