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Data Analytics at Webster University Library

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Since 2000 there has been an effort to assign everything that exists in the digital world, e.g. online articles, with a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier or a DOI.  The DOI is unique, permanent, and persistent. It remains the same despite changes in URL's or permanent removal from the Internet.

In APA and AMA citation styles, use the DOI in citations whenever one is listed.

How do I cite articles from the Library's databases?

When you cite a full-text article retrieved from a Webster University Library database, some citation styles require you to cite the database name and/or a URL. Here’s how the University's most-used citation styles address this issue:

  • APA (7th): Include only the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if it is available. If there is no DOI listed in the database or on the article itself, do not include any database information or a URL.
  • MLA (9th), Chicago, AMA, Harvard: If a DOI is present, add both it and the database name to the citation. If a DOI is not present, include the database name and provide the database permalink or URL (if there is no permalink).

Citation guides in the Library

Webster University's Writing Center

Whether you are an experienced academic writer or this is your first paper, Webster University's Writing Center offers writing support for students. Find help with all kinds of research projects, including "reports; résumés and cover letters; admission essays and personal statements; summaries, critical analyses, and literature reviews; research and term papers; theses and dissertations; and more." Writing Center coaches are available at all stages of the writing process from brainstorming to draft revision and everything in-between.

Visit Writing Support to: 

  • Schedule an appointment with a writing coach
  • Submit a paper online to the Writing Center for review
  • Select Writing Resources to find help with citation, grammar, avoiding plagiarism, and more

Academic integrity and plagiarism

Help with Chicago/Turabian citation